By Gerd Nonneman
Within the post-9/11 weather, the function of center japanese and North African (MENA) states in Europe’s nearby defense atmosphere and overseas politics has develop into greater than ever a spotlight for recognition, yet is still ill-understood. This ebook presents a framework for the research of center jap international rules usually, and for realizing those states’ kin with Europe particularly. The booklet fills a spot within the literature on Euro-Middle japanese family by means of adopting a south-to-north viewpoint, utilizing the instruments of overseas coverage research to check the determinants of the international rules of the MENA states themselves: basically hence can one desire to reach at a real knowing of what underlies those states’ evolving coverage orientations and behavior in the direction of Europe. the amount begins via laying out a conceptual framework for research, and interpreting the family, neighborhood, and foreign environments that situation MENA overseas regulations. real coverage output is then systematically investigated via quite a lot of state case experiences starting from the Maghreb and the Mashreq to the Gulf and Turkey. Europe is handled all through either as a objective of these international guidelines, and as a part of the surroundings that shapes them. the results of a two-year venture backed by means of the ecu college Institute’s Mediterranean Programme, the publication is helping bridge the divide among heart East services and the self-discipline of diplomacy. The systematic comparative research of MENA states’ overseas coverage with certain connection with Europe throws new gentle on questions on ‘Third global’ international coverage.
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3. Nevertheless, some constraint continues to be imposed by the Palestine issue and its ‘Arab’ and ‘Muslim’ echoes; this is heightened when perceptions of increasing US hegemony combine with crisis in the Israeli– THE THREE ENVIRONMENTS OF MENA FOREIGN POLICY 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 39 Palestinian equation and a sense of government failure. The Iraq crisis of 2003 reinforced this. Policies are also in some measure based on a view of Europe as a counterweight to US. The experience of the Iraq conﬂict of 2003 may have added some weight to this.
3. The ‘multi-bilateral’ relations in the context of a series of Mediterranean policy frameworks since 1972. 4. The more recent EU-to-subregion agreements, since the late 1980s. 5. Subgroup-to-subgroup relations such as the ‘Five-plus-Five’ cooperation among the states of the western Mediterranean. Early Bilateral Agreements The EC’s formal relations with the MENA region started out with a number of bilateral agreements, beginning with preferential trade agreements with Lebanon and Israel in 1964, followed by an early form of association agreements with Morocco and Tunisia in 1969 and a trade agreement with Egypt in 1972.
11. ), Perspectives on Development: The EuroMediterranean Partnership (London: Frank Cass, 1999). 12. , pp. 16–38: p. 17. This is a useful review of the ‘Washington Consensus’ and critiques of it, along with a careful examination of the case of the southern Mediterranean countries. 13. ), Perspectives on Development, pp. 75–88, as well as the contributions from Jon Marks, Grahame Thompson and Bernard Hoekman in the same volume. 14. Hunt, ‘Development Economics, the Washington Consensus, and the European–Mediterranean Partnership Initiative’, p.
Analysing Middle Eastern Foreign Policies: The Relationship With Europe by Gerd Nonneman